Determinants of Condom Use among Selected Migrant Commercial Farm Workers in South Africa

Linda Musariri, Clifford O. Odimegwu


Previous studies have shown that HIV prevalence rates are relatively high while condom use is low in migrant communities in South Africa. Using data from the Integrated Biological and Behavioural Surveillance Survey implemented by the International Organisation for Migration in 2010 among farm workers, this study seeks to investigate factors associated with condom use among migrant men and women in selected commercial farms in two provinces of South Africa. The study analysed 943 sexually active non-South Africans working in selected farms. Data analysis was undertaken at univariate, bivariate and multivariate levels using logistic regression producing odds ratios to examine the associations at 5% level of significance. The results showed that access to free condoms, financial stability and staying away from spouse increased the odds of condom use among migrant farm workers in Limpopo and Mpumalanga. Amongst men being financially stable and having access to free condoms significantly increased the odds of using condoms. Amongst women being married reduced the odds of using condoms while access to free condoms and living away from spouse significantly increased condom use. Determinants of condom use vary between male and female migrants. HIV prevention policies and programmes targeting migrant farm workers should be gender sensitive. (Afr J Reprod Health 2016; 20[2]: 13-26).

Full Text:



Statistics South Africa. Mid year population estimates report. 2014. 2. UNAIDS. Report on the global AIDS epidemic. Geneva: UNAIDS. 2010. 3. Lurie MN, Williams BG, Zuma K, Mkaya-Mwamburi D, Garnett G et al. The impact of migration on HIV-1 Transmission in South Africa: A study of

migrant and non-migrant men and their partners. Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2002; 30: 149-56. 4. McDonald DA, Crush J. Transnationalism, African immigration and new migrant spaces in South Africa: An Introduction. Canadian Journal of African Studies. 2000; 1-19. 5. Corno L, de Walque D. Mines, Migration and HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa. Journal of African Economies. 2012; 21 (3): 465-498. 6. Heideman E, HIV/AIDS vulnerability among farm workers in the Southern Freestate. Stellenbosch University.2010 7. Klein DJ, Eckhoff PA, Bershteyn A.Targeting HIV services to male migrant workers in southern Africa would not reverse generalized HIV epidemics in their home communities: a mathematical modeling analysis. International Health. 2015;7(2):107-113. 8. International Organisation for Migration. Southern African Migration Project: HIV/AIDS, Population Mobility and Migration in Southern Africa: Defining a Research and Policy Agenda. Geneva: IOM, 2005. 9. International Organisation for Migration and Japan International Cooperation Agency.HIV/AIDS vulnerability among migrant farm workers on the South African – Mozambican border Geneva: IOM, JICA. 2004. 10. Human Rights Watch. Cultivating Fear: The vulnerability of immigrant farm workers in the US to sexual violence and harassment. USA: ISBN: 156432-886-4. 2012. 11. Sigsworth R. Double Jeopardy: Foreign and Female. Cape Town: HBS.2010 12. Organista KC, Organista PB. Migrant labourers and AIDS in the USA: A review of literature. International Society of AIDS Education.1997; 9: 83-93. 13. Brummer, D. Labour Migration and HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa. South Africa: IOM. 2002. 14. Bond, V. and Dover P. Men, women and the trouble with condoms: problems associated with condom use by migrant workers in rural Zambia. Health Transition review. 1997; 7: 377-391. 15. Shisana O, Rehle T, Simbayi LC,Zuma K, Jooste S, Pillay-van-Wyk V, Mbelle N, Van Zyl J, Parker W, Zungu NP, Pezi S & the SABSSM Implementation Team. South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence, Behaviour and Communication Survey 2008: A turning tide among teenagers? Cape Town: HSRC Press. 2009 16. Gita R, Gouws, Eleanor Prevalence of HIV among truck drivers visiting sex workers in KZN, South Africa. Sexually transmitted diseases.2002; 44-49. 17. Parry CD, Corney T, Petersen P, Dewing S, Needle R. HIV risk behaviour among injecting or noninjecting drug users in Cape Town, Pretoria and Durban, South Africa. Substance Use and Misuse.2009; 886-904.

Musariri & Odimegwu Condom Use among Migrant Workers

African Journal of Reproductive Health June 2016; 20 (2): 26

Lane T, Raymond HF, Dladla S, Rasethe J, Struthers H et al. HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men in Soweto, South Africa. AIDS Behaviour.2009; 626-634. 19. Parrado EA, Flippen CA, McQuiston C. Migration and relation power among Mexican women. Demography. 2005; 42 . 20. Yang X (2004) Temporary Migration and HIV Risky behaviors: A case study in Southwestern China. International Migration Review. 2004; 212-235. 21. International Organisation for Migration. Integrated Biological and Behavioral Surveillance Survey (IBBSS) South Africa. South Africa: IOM. 2010. 22. Pulerwitz J1, Amaro H, De Jong W, Gortmaker SL, Rudd R. Relationship power, condom use and HIV risk among women in the USA. AIDS Care. 2002;14(6):789-800. 23. Pampel FC. Logistic regression: a primer. USA: Sage Publications. 2000 24. Introduction to SAS. UCLA: Statistical Consulting Group.from 25. Cohen, J. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd ed. Hillsdale, NJ.Erlbaum. 1988 26. Chimbiri A.The condom is an ‘intruder’ in marriage: Evidence from rural Malawi. Social Science and Medicine. 2007;1102–1115. 27. PATH and UNFPA. Female condom: A powerful tool for protection. Seattle. PATH and UNFPA. 2006. 28. O'Neal EN, Decker SH, Spohn C, Tellis K. Condom use during sexual assault. J Forensic Leg Med.

;20(6):605-9. 29. McGrath N, Eaton JW, Newell M, Hosegood V. Migration, sexual behaviour, and HIV risk: a general population cohort in rural South Africa. Lancet HIV 2015; 2: e252–59 30. Yang X, Xia G. Temporary migration and STD/HIV risky sexual behaviour: A population-based analysis of gender differences in China. Society for the Study of Social Problems. 2008; 322-346. 31. Choy S, Holroyd E. The influence of power, poverty and agency in the negotiation of condom use for female sex workers in mainland, China. Culture, Health and Sexuality. 2007; 9: 489-503 . 32. UNAIDS. AIDS epidemic update. Geneva: UNAIDS. 2004 33. Gupta K, Singh SK. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP) Regional Population Conference on Southeast Asia’s Population in a Changing Asian Context. Paper presented at IUSSP, Bangkok.2002. 34. Halli SS, Blanchard J, Satihal DG, Moses S. Migration and HIV transmission in rural South India: An Ethnographic study. Culture Health and Sexuality. 2007;9: 85-94. 35. Plummer ML, Ross DA, Wight D, Changalucha J, Mshana G. “A bit more truthful”: the validity of adolescent sexual behaviour data collected in rural northern Tanzania using five methods. Sexually Transmitted Infections. 2004; 49-56


  • There are currently no refbacks.