Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Experiences of Girls with Hearing Impairment in Accessing Reproductive Health Care Services in Ibadan, Nigeria

Oyedunni S. Arulogun, Musibau A. Titiloye, Nathanael B. Afolabi, Oyediran E. Oyewole, Onyekwere G.B. Nwaorgu


Delivery of health services to people with hearing impairment is poorly understood in Nigeria and limited research has been done to throw more light on the process involved. This study described experiences of 167 girls with hearing impairment in accessing reproductive health services in Ibadan using a validated questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression were used to analyze the data. Almost 95.0% of respondents had ever visited health facility for reproductive health issues. Of these 6.2% and 4.6% went for treatment of STIs and pregnancy termination respectively; 36.7% were embarrassed to ask questions in the presence of an  interpreter, communication (40.5%) and cost (10.8%) were key barriers to access and 85.6% would use facility if hearing impairment-friendly services are provided. Respondents who were currently working were 20 times more likely to receive services they wanted (OR=20.29, CI=1.05-392.16). Availability of certified interpreters and ensuring confidentiality are key to effective service delivery for the hearing impaired.  (Afr J Reprod Health 2013; 17[1]: 85-93).


La prestation des services de santé aux personnes atteintes de déficience auditive est mal comprise au  Nigéria et il n’y a pas eu assez de recherche faite  pour jeter plus de lumière sur le processus impliqué. A l’aide d’un questionnaire validé, cette étude décrit les expériences de 167 filles atteintes de déficience auditive, face à l'accès aux services de santé de la reproduction, à Ibadan. Les statistiques descriptives et de régression logistique binaire ont été utilisées pour analyser les données. Près de 95,0% des interviewées avaient déjà visité un établissement de santé pour les questions de santé de la reproduction. Parmi  elles, 6,2% et 4,6% sont allées pour le traitement des ISTs et l'interruption de grossesse, respectivement; 36,7% étaient gênées de poser des questions à la présence d'un interprète ; la communication (40,5%) et le coût (10,8%) étaient les principaux obstacles à l'accès et 85,6% se serviront des établissements de santé si les services adaptés à la déficience auditive  sont assurés. Les interviewées qui travaillent actuellement étaient 20 fois plus susceptibles de recevoir des services qu'ils voulaient (OR = 20,29, IC = 1,05 à 392,16). La disponibilité des interprètes certifiés et l’assurance de la confidentialité sont essentielles à la prestation efficace des services pour les personnes atteintes de  déficience auditive (Afr J Reprod Health 2013; 17[1]: 85-93).

Keywords: disability, reproductive health, health care access, hearing impaired girls

Full Text:



Womens’ Health Exchange. Breaking barriers in Nigeria Access to health care for women with disabilities,

; 11: 1-8.

American Nurses Association (ANA) Code of ethics for nurses. Retrieved June 6, 2007, from http://

Pozgar GD. Legal aspects of health care administration

(9th ed.) Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers 2004

Bachman SS, Vedrani M, Drainoni M, Tobias C and Maisels L. Provider perceptions of their capacity to offer accessible health care for people with disabilities. J. Disabil. Policy Stud 2006; 17(3), 130136.

Iezzoni LI, O'Day BL, Killeen M and Harker H. Communicating about health care: Observations from persons who are hearing impaired or hard of hearing. Ann Intern Med 2004; 140(5), 356-362.

Law J, Bunning K, Byng S, Farrelly, S and Heyman, B. Making sense in primary care: Levelling the playing field for people with communication difficulties. Disability and Society 2005; 20(2), 169-184.

Jones EG, Renger R. and Firestone R. Hearing impaired community analysis for health education priorities. Public Health Nurs 2005; 22(1), 27-35.

African Journal of Reproductive Health March 2013; 17(1):

Hearing impaired girls reproductive health

Zazove P, Meador H, Reed BD, Sen A and Gorenflo D. Cancer prevention knowledge of people with profound hearing loss. J Gen Intern Med 2009; 24, 320-326.

Steinberg AG, Barnett S, Meador HE, Wiggins EA and Zazove P. Health care system accessibility: Experiences and perceptions of hearing impaired people. J Gen Intern Med 2006; 21(3), 260-266.

Tamaskar P, Malia T, Stern C, Gorenflo D, Meador H and Zazove P. Preventive attitudes and beliefs of hearing impaired and hard-of-hearing individuals. Arch Fam Med 2000; 9, 518-525.

Barnett S and Franks P. Health care utilization and adults who are hearing impaired: Relationship with age at onset of hearing impairedness. Health Serv Res 2002; 37(1), 105-120.

Harmer LM. Health care delivery and hearing impaired people: practice, problems and recommendations for change. J Hearing impaired Stud Hearing impaired Educ 1999; 4:73-110.

Olubodun WO. The life experiences of hearing impaired high school graduates in Nigeria. A Dissertation of the University of Nebraska – Lincon, 2003

Kurz RSC, Haddock DL, Winkle V and Wang G. The Effects of Hearing Impairment on Health Services Utilization. Med Care 1991; 29: 878–89.

Ries PW. Hearing Ability of Persons by

Sociodemographic and Health Characteristics: United States, 1977. Vital and Health Statistics, 1982; Series 10, No. 140.

Zazove P, Niemann LC, Gorenflo DW, Carmach C, Mehr D, Coyne JC and Antonucci T. 1993. “The Health Status and Health Care Utilization of Hearing impaired and Hard-of-Hearing Persons.” Arch Fam Med 1993; 2: 745–52.

Ebert DA, and Heckerling PS. Communication with Hearing impaired Patients: Knowledge, Beliefs, and Practices of Physicians. JAMA 1995; 273: 227–9.

Pollard RQ. Public Mental Health Service and Diagnostic Trends Regarding Individuals Who Are Hearing impaired or Hard of Hearing. Rehabil Psychol 1994; 39: 147–60.

Schein JD and Delk MT. Survey of health care for hearing impaired people. Hearing impaired Am 1980; 32(5): 5-6, 27.

Brieger WR, and Adeniyi JD. Urban community health education in Africa. Int’l. Quarterly of Community Health Education 1982; 2: 109-121.

Folkins A, Sadler GR, Ko C, Branz P, Marsh S and Bovee M. Improving the hearing impaired community's access to prostate and testicular cancer information: A survey study. BMC Public Health, 2005; 5, 63-69. Mayer GG and Villaire M. Low health literacy and its effects on patient care. J Nurs Adm 2004; 34: 440442.

Bat-Chava Y, Martin D and Kosciw JG. Barriers to HIV/AIDS knowledge and prevention among hearing impaired and hard of hearing people. AIDS Care 2005; 17(5), 623-634.

Kroll T, Jones GC, Kehn M and Neri MT. Barriers and strategies affecting the utilization of primary preventive services for people with physical disabilities: A qualitative inquiry. Health Soc Care Community 2006; 14(4), 284-293.

Ubido J, Huntington J and Warburton D. Inequalities in access to healthcare faced by women who are hearing impaired. Health Soc Care Community 2002; 10(4), 247-253.

Kritzinger J. Exploring the barriers and facilitators to health care services and health care information for hearing impaired people in Worcester Stellenbosch University December 2011.


  • There are currently no refbacks.