Contraceptive Implants

O. A. Ladipo, S. A. Akinso

Abstract

In response to the need of some women for long-acting, effective and safe contraceptives, the scientific community developed non-biodegradable progestational subdermal implants that act by making the cervical mucus viscous, with ovulation inhibition and thinning of the endometrial lining. The contraceptive protection is within 24 hours and the cumulative failure rate is low. Contraceptive implants require little or no motivation following adequate counselling. In current use are multirod implants (Norplant I and Norplant II Jadelle) and single rod implant (Implanon and Uniplant). Although menstrual symptoms associated with progestational regimens are the major compliance and acceptability factors within the first year of use, menstrual disturbance generally improves. Continuation rates for implant use are high among those who have had adequate pre-insertion counselling because the perceived advantages greatly outweigh the nuisance effects. Other side effects of implants are similar to those observed with hormonal pills - headache, weight changes, mood swings and abdominal bloating. Training of physicians and nurses in the art of insertion and removal techniques is a pre-requisite for a successful implant programme. This should also be backed by integration of implants into the national commodity logistics systems to ensure adequate local budgetary provision for contraceptive implant procurement rather than reliance on donor supply. (Afr J Reprod Health 2005; 9[1]: 16-23)  

Keywords: Contraception, implant, counselling, insertion, removal 

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References

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