Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

The Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection among Pregnant Women in Labour with Unknown Status and those with Negative status early in the Index Pregnancy in a Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria.

Binyerem C Ukaire, Chris O Agboghoroma, Korede W Durojaiye

Abstract

Rapid HIV test in labour provide an opportunity for the identification of HIV positive pregnant women who should benefit from interventions to reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. Between November 2013 and June 2014 we conducted rapid HIV testing of pregnant women in labour at the National Hospital Abuja to determine the HIV seroconversion rate in pregnancy and the prevalence of HIV in pregnant women in labour with previously unknown status. HIV testing and counseling (HTC) was acceptable to 224 (99.6%) of the pregnant women who met the study criteria. The mean 'turnaround' time for test result was 288 minutes and 16.2 minutes for tests performed in the hospital laboratory and those performed at the point‐of‐care (labour ward) respectively. HIV seroconversion was detected in 2(1.2%) of the 165 parturients with initial HIV negative result early in the index pregnancy. HIV infection was detected in four (2.7%) of the 59 parturients with unknown HIV status. Secondary school level education was significantly associated with HIV seroconversion in pregnancy P<0.001. HTC in labour using rapid testing strategy is feasible and acceptable in our setting. The introduction of HCT will lead to the diagnosis of HIV positive women in labour, appropriate interventions and prevention of MTCT of HIV. (Afr J Reprod Health 2015; 19[3]: 137-143).

Full Text:

PDF

References

Federal Ministry of Health [Nigeria] National HIV & AIDS and Reproductive Health Surveys 2012 (NARHS Plus). Federal Ministry of Health, Abuja, Nigeria. 2013.

The Working Group on Mother – to – Child Transmission

of HIV. Rates of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV I in Africa, America and Europe: Result from 13 perinatal studies J. Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retroviral 1995; 8:506-510.

UNAIDS. 2011 Report on the global AIDS epidemic: The

global challenge. Available at:http://www. unaids.org. Assessed on 10 December 2013.

Dabis F, Ekpini ER. HIV-1/AIDS and maternal and child

health in Africa. Lancet, 2002; 359:2097-2104.

Agboghoroma OC. Prevention of Mother -to-Child

transmission of HIV/AIDS. In: Okonofua FE. Confronting the Challenge of Reproductive Health in Africa: A Textbook for Students and Development Practitioners. Benin: WHARC, 2014 : 345-366.

National Population Commission (NPC) [Nigeria] and

ICF International. Nigeria Demographic and HealthSurvey 2013 Abuja, Nigeria, and Rockville, Maryland USA. NPC and ICF International; 2014.https://www.population.gov.ng/images/ng/images/dhs_data/nds_2013/2013 ndhs_final_report pdf. Accessed January 26th, 2015.

Moodley D, Esterhuizen TM, Pather T, Chetty V, Ngaleka

L. High HIV incidence during pregnancy: compelling reason for repeat HIV testing. AIDS 2009; 23: 1255-1259.

Gray RH, Li X, Kigozi G. Serwadda D, Brahmbhatt H et

al Increased risk of incident HIV during pregnancy in Rakai, Uganda: a prospective study. Lance 2005; 366: 1182-88.

Patterson KB, Leone PA, Fiscus SA, Kuruc J, McCoy SI

et al. Frequent detection of acute HIV infection in pregnant woman. AIDS 2007; 21: 2303-2308.

Nesheim S, Jamieson DJ, Danner SP, Maupin R,

O’Sullivan MJ. Primary human immunodeficiency virus infection during pregnancy detected by repeat testing. AJOG; 197: 149.e1-149.e5.

Federal Ministry of Health, Nigeria. National Guidelines

for Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, 4th edition, Abuja, Federal Ministry of Health, 2010.

Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. Revised

recommendations for HIV Testing of Adults, Adolescents, and Pregnant Women in Health-Care settings.MMWR 2006; 55(No. RR-14) :1-16.

Sansom SL, Jamieson DJ, Farnham PG, Bulterys M,

Fowler MG. Human immunodeficiency virus

retesting during pregnancy: costs and effectiveness in preventing perinatal transmission. ObstetGynecol 2003;102(4):782-790.http://dx.doi.org/10. 1016 /S0 029-7844(03)00624-0.

Udeh B, Udeh C, Graves N. Perinatal HIV transmission

and the cost-effectiveness of screening at 14 weeks' gestation, at the onset of labour, and the rapid testing of infants. BMC Infect Dis 2008;8:174-8.http:// dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-8-174. PMid: 19117527. PMCid:2642823.

Lu L, Kieffer MP, Legwaila K, Mahdi MA, Chouraya C,

Waligo A, Shabalala F. Repeat HIV testing in labor and delivery as a standard of care increases ARV provision for women who seroconvert during pregnancy. AIDS 2009;23:1255-9.

Homsy J, Klamya JN, Obonyo J, Ojwang J, Mugumya R,

et al. Routine intrapartum HIV counseling and testing for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in a rural Uganda hospital. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2006; 42(2): 149-154.

HIV Diagnosis: A Guide For Selecting Rapid diagnostic

Test Kits (RDT) Kits. Available at: http://www.who .int/bct/Main_areas_of_work/BTS/HIV_Diagnostics/HIV_Test Kit_Evaluation.htm. Assessed on 30th October, 2013.

Bulterys M, Jamieson DJ, O’Sullivan MJ, Cohen MH,

Maupin R, et al. Rapid HIV-1 testing during labor – A multicentre study. JAMA 2004; 292(2): 219-223.

Kissin DM, Akatova N, Rakhmanova AG, Vinogradova

EN, Voronin EE et al. Rapid HIV testing and prevention of perinatal HIV transmission in high-risk maternity hospitals in St. Petersburg, Russia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2008; 198: 183.e1-183.e7.

Nkwocha GC, Adesina OA, Arowojolu AO, Bamgboye

EA, Adewole IF, Ilesanmi AO. Sensitivity, Specificity and Predictive Values of DetermineTM HIV-1/2, Rapid HIV Antibodies among Booked Antenatal Women in University College Hospital, Ibadan.2012; 1:461.

Sagay AS, Musa J, Adewole AS, Imade GE, Ekwempu

CC, Kapiga S, Sankale JL, Idoko J, Kanki P. Rapid HIV testing and counseling in labour in a Northern Nigerian setting. Afr J Reprod Health. 2006 Apr; 10(1): 76-80.

Agboghoroma OC, Iliyasu Z. HIV Prevalence and trends

among pregnant women in Abuja, Nigeria: A 5-year

analysis. Trop J Obstet Gynaecol 2015; 32 (1); 82-89.

Afolabi AF, Adeyemi AS, Owonikoko KM, Adeomi AA,

Adeniji AO. Human immune deficiency virus infection: seroconversion during pregnancy. International Journal of General Medicine and Pharmacy 2013; 2(3): 53-62.

Urassa W, Kaaya S, Mwakagile D, O’Brien M, Antelman

G, Hunter D, et al. Evidence of a substantial decline in prevalence of HIV‐1 infection among pregnant women: data from 1995 to 2003 in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Scand J Publ Health 2006; 34: 272 -278.

Dhayendre M, Tonya ME, Thusie P, Vani C, Linda N.

High HIV incidence during pregnancy: compelling reason for repeat HIV testing. AIDS 2009; 1255 – 1259.

Rehle T, Shisana O, Pillay V, Zuma K, Puren A, Parker

W.National HIV incidence measures: new insights into the South African epidemic. S Afr Med J 2007; 97: 194-199.

Taha TE, Dallabetta GA, Hoover DR, et al. Trends of

HIV ‐1 and sexually transmitted diseases among pregnant and postpartum women in urban Malawi. AIDS 1998; 12: 197.

Imade GE, Sagay AS, Musa J, Ocheke AN, Adeniyi DS,

et al. Declining rate of infection with maternal human immunodeficiency virus at delivery units in North Central Nigeria. Afr J Reprod Health 2013; Special Edition); 17(4): 138-145.

Onakewhor JUE, Osemwenkha A, Ovbagbedia O,

Omoigberale AI, Sadoh WE, et al. Appraisal of repeat intrapartum human immunodeficiency virus screening in a prevention of mother-to-child transmission program in Nigerian. Journal of HIV

and Human Reproduction 2013; 1(2): 70-76.

Gupta N, Sastry J, Brookmeyer R, Phadke MA, Bhosale

RA, et al. Declining HIV infection rates among recently married primigravid women in Pune, India. J Acquir Immune Defi Syndr 2007;45: 570-573.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.