A Comparative Analysis of Fertility Differentials in Ghana and Nigeria

Oluwaseun Olatoregun, Adeniyi Francis Fagbamigbe, Odunayo Joshua Akinyemi, Oyindamola Bidemi Yusuf, Elijah Afolabi Bamgboye


Nigeria and Ghana are the most densely populated countries in the West African sub-region with fertility levels above world average. Our study compared the two countries’ fertility levels and their determinants as well as the differentials in the effect of these factors across the two countries. We carried out a retrospective analysis of data from the Nigeria and Ghana Demographic Health Surveys, 2008. The sample of 33,385 and 4,916 women aged 15-49 years obtained in Nigeria and Ghana respectively was stratified into low, medium and high fertility using reported children ever born. Data was summarized using appropriate descriptive statistics. Factors influencing fertility were identified using ordinal logistic regression at 5% significance level. While unemployment significantly lowers fertility in Nigeria, it wasn’t significant in Ghana. In both countries, education, age at first marriage, marital status, urban-rural residence, wealth index and use of oral contraception were the main factors influencing high fertility levels. (Afr J Reprod Health 2014; 18[3]: 36-47)


Keywords: Fertility differential, Educational level, ordinal logistic regression, Nigeria, Ghana   


Le Nigeria et le Ghana sont les pays les plus peuplés de la sous-région d’Afrique de l'Ouest avec des taux de fécondité supérieurs à la moyenne mondiale. Notre étude a comparé les taux de fécondité des deux pays et de leurs déterminants ainsi que les différences dans l'effet de ces facteurs dans les deux pays. Nous avons fait une analyse rétrospective des données de l'Enquête démographique de la santé du Nigeria et du Ghana, 2008. L'échantillon de 33 385 et des 4916 femmes âgées de 15-49 ans obtenus au Nigeria et au Ghana respectivement a été stratifié en basse, moyenne et haute en se servant des enfants  qui ont été déclarés comme jamais nés. Les données ont été résumées en utilisant des statistiques descriptives appropriées. Les facteurs qui influent sur la fécondité ont été identifiés par la régression logistique ordinale au niveau de signification de 5%. Alors que le chômage diminue de manière significative la fertilité au Nigeria, ce n'était pas significatif au Ghana. Dans les deux pays, l'éducation, l'âge au premier mariage, l'état, civil, le milieu de domicile, l'indice de la richesse et de l'utilisation de la contraception orale ont été les principaux facteurs qui influent sur les niveaux de fécondité élevés. (Afr J Reprod Health 2014; 18[3]: [1]6-47)


Mots-clés: écart de fécondité,  niveau de l'éducation,  régression logistique ordinale Nigeria, Ghana  

[1] .

It is true that human fertility is a function of a variety of factors. A proper understanding of these factors would be of paramount importance in 

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