Development and Assessment of a Coping Scale for Infertile Women in Turkey

Aysel Karaca, Gül Ünsal, Elif Asik, Ilkay Keser, Handan Ankarali, Yeliz Doğan Merih


Infertile women feel more psychological stress and pressure than their husbands, and the prevalence of anxiety and depression among them are higher. This study aimed to develop a culture-specific measurement tool to identify the strategies of infertile women in dealing with infertility-related problems. This was a scale development study. This study was carried out in three different fertility centers in the three largest cities in Turkey. The data were collected using personal information form and through the application of a Coping Scale for Infertile Women (CSIW) protocol. Ways of Coping with Stress Inventory. Cronbach’s alpha, Intraclass Correlation Coefficient and Spearman’s Rank correlation analyses were used to determine the reliability of the scale. The results of explanatory factor analysis and a factor structure of the Coping Scale for Infertile Women, comprising 50 items, were examined, and the data were determined to be suitable to perform factor analysis. The internal consistency of the scale was found to be 0.880. The number of factors in the scale was 10, and the internal consistency of the factors was 0.720. The results showed that the CSIW had good reliability and validity.(Afr J Reprod Health 2018; 22[3]:13-23)

Full Text:



Sezgin H and Hocaoğlu Ç. Psychiatric aspects of

infertility. Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014;6(2):165-184.

Covington SN and Adamson GD. Collaborative

reproductive healthcare model. In: Covington SN, editor. Fertility counseling: clinical guide and case studies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press:2015, 1–32.

Sexton MB, Byrd MR and von Kluge S. Measuring

resilience in women experiencing infertility using the CD-RISC: examining infertility-related stress, general distress, and coping styles. Journal of psychiatric research 2010; 44(4):236-241.

Karaca A and Ünsal G. The effects of infertility on

women’s mental health and role of psychiatric nursing. Journal of Psychiatric Nursing 2012; 3(2):80-86

Herrmann D, Scherg H, Verres R,Hagens C,Strowitzki T

and Wischmann T. Resilience in infertile couples acts as a protective factor against infertility-specific distress and impaired quality of life. J Assist Reprod Genet 2011; 10(8): 45-52.

Kırca N and Pasinlioğlu T. Psychosocial problems

during infertility treatment. Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2013; 5(2): 28-34.

Lazarus RS and Folkman S. Coping and adaptation. The

handbook of behavioral medicine, 1984, 282-325.

Yorulmaz EG and Sütcü ST. Effectiveness of cognitive

behavioral group therapy in infertility: a systematic review. Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; (8):144-156.

Cunha M, Galhardo A and Pinto-Gouveia J. Experiential

avoidance, self-compassion, self-judgment and coping styles in infertility. Sexual&Reproductive Healthcare 2016; (10): 41-47.

Ozan,YD and Okumuş H. Effects of nursing care based

on Watson’s theory of human caring on anxiety, distress, and coping, when infertility treatment fails: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Caring Sciences 2017; 6(2):95-109.

Latifnejad RR, Allan HT, and Smith PA. Iranian and

English women’s use of religion and spirituality as resources for coping within fertility. Human Fertility2014; 17(2):114-123.

Aflakseir A and Zarei M. Association between coping

strategies and infertility stress among a group of women with fertility problem in Shiraz, Iran. Journal of Reproduction & İnfertility 2013; 14(4): 202.

Atwood JD and Dobkin S. Storm cloud sare coming:

Ways to help couples reconstruct the crisis of infertility. Contemporary Family Therapy 1992; (14): 385–403

Dag H, Yigitoglu S, Aksakal BI and Kavlak O. The

association between coping method and distress in infertile woman: A cross-sectional study from Turkey. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences 2015; 31(6):1457.

Klobucar NR. The role of spirituality in transition to

parenthood: Qualitative research using transformative learning theory. Journal of Religion and Health 2016; (55):1345–1358.

Romeiro J, Caldeira S, Brady V, Timmins F and Hall J.

Spiritual aspects of living within fertility: Synthesis of qualitative studies. Journal of Clinical Nursing 2017; DOI: 10.1111/jocn.13813

Gorayeb R, Borsari AC, Rosa-e-Silva ACJ and Ferriani

RA. Brief cognitive behavioral intervention in groups in a Brazilian Assisted Reproduction Program. Behav Med 2012; (38):29-35.

Benyamini Y, Gefen-Bardarian Y, Gozlan M, Tabiv, G,

Shiloh, S and Kokia E. Coping specificity: The case of women coping within fertility treatments. Psychology and Health 2008; 23(2):221-241.

Lee TY, Sun GH, Chao SC and Chen CC. Development

of the coping scale for infertile couples. Archives of Andrology 2000; 45(3):149-154.

Karaca A and Unsal G. Psychosocial problems and

coping strategies among Turkish women with infertility. Asian Nursing Research 2015; 9(3): 243-250.

Lawshe CH. A quantitative approach to content validity.

Personnel Psychology 1975; (28): 563–575.

Taşkın Ç andAkat Ö. Structural equation modeling in

research methods: examples of brand value measurement with LISREL. Ekin Publishing Distribution, 2010, 25-28.

Folkman S and Lazarus RS. An analysis of coping in a

middle-aged community sample. Journal of health and social behavior, 1980, 219-239.

Şahin NH and Durak A. A stressful coping style scale

for university students.Journal of Turkish Psychology 1995; 10(34):56-73.

Akgül A. Statistical Analysis Techniques and Analysis

Methods in Medical Research. SPSS Applications. Higher Education Council Press, Ankara, 1997,22-25

Oti-Boadi M, Asante KO. Psychological health and

religious coping of Ghanaian women with infertility. Bio Psycho Social medicine 2017; 11(1): 20.

Büyüköztürk Ş. Factor analysis: Basic concepts and its

use in scale development. Educational Management in Theory and Practice 2002; 32(32): 470-483.

Beck AT. Cognitive therapy and the emotional

disorders. (Translated by A. Turkcan, V. Öztürk), Cognitive Therapy and Emotional Disorders. Litera Publishing, 1976.

Joelsson L, S Tydén T, Wanggren K, Georgakis MK,

Stern J, Berglund A and Skalkidou A. Anxiety and depression symptoms among sub-fertile women, women pregnant after infertility treatment, and naturally pregnant women. European Psychiatry 2017; (45): 212-219.


  • There are currently no refbacks.