Linking Population, Fertility, and Family Planning with Adaptation to Climate Change: Perspectives from Ethiopia

Kimberly Rovin, Karen Hardee, Aklilu Kidanu

Abstract

Global climate change is felt disproportionately in the world’s most economically disadvantaged countries. As adaption to an evolving climate becomes increasingly salient on national and global scales, it is important to assess how people at the local-level are already coping with changes. Understanding local responses to climate change is essential for helping countries to construct strategies to bolster resilience to current and future effects. This qualitative research investigated responses to climate change in Ethiopia; specifically, how communities react to and cope with climate variation, which groups are most vulnerable, and the role of family planning in increasing resilience. Participants were highly aware of changing climate effects, impacts of rapid population growth, and the need for increased access to voluntary family planning. Identification of family planning as an important adaptation strategy supports the inclusion of rights-based voluntary family planning and reproductive health into local and national climate change adaptation plans. (Afr J Reprod Health 2013; 17[3]: 15-29).

Full Text:

PDF

References

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Adger WN, Huq S, Brown K, Conway D, and Hulme M. Adaptation to Climate Change in the Developing World. Progress in Development Studies 2003; 3(3): 179-195.

Mutunga C and Hardee K. Population and Reproductive Health in National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs) for Climate Change. In: Guzman, JM, Martine, G, McGranahan, G, Schensul, D and Tacoli, C (Eds.). Population Dynamics and Climate Change. New York: UNFPA, 2009.

Bryant L, Carver L, Butler CD and Anage A. Climate change and family planning: least-developed countries define the agenda. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2009; 87: 852-857.

O’Neill BC, Dalton M, Fuchs R, Jiang L, Pachauri S and Zigova K. Global Demographic Trends and Future Carbon Emissions. National Academy of Sciences 2010; 107: 17521-6.

Francis D. The Real Inconvenient Truth. Financial Post December 7, 2009. Available online:

a. http://www.financialpost.com/story.html?id=2314438#ixzz0vlYiuViL.

McLeman R. Impacts of Population Change on Vulnerability and the Capacity to Adapt to Climate Change and Variability: A Typology Based on Lessons from a Hard Country. Population Environment 2010; 31: 286-316.

Denton F. Climate Change Vulnerability, Impacts, and Adaptation: Why Does Gender Matter?” Gender and Development 2002; 10(2): 10-20.

Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (FDRE) Ministry of Water Resources and National Meteorological Agency (NMA). Climate Change National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) of Ethiopia. Addis Ababa: UNDP, 2007.

Cline WR. Global Warming and Agriculture: Impact Estimates by Country. Washington, DC: Center for Global Development and the Peterson Institute for International Economics, 2007.

Intergovernmental Authority on Development and Climate Prediction and Application Centre (ICPAC). Climate Change and Human Development in Africa: Assessing the Risks and Vulnerability of Climate Change in Kenya, Malawi and Ethiopia. New York: UNDP, 2007.

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Water: A Shared Responsibility: The United Nations World Water Development Report 2. New York: Berghahn Books, 2006.

Ministry of Finance and Economic Development (MoFED). Ethiopia: Building on Progress. A Plan for Accelerated and Sustained Development to End Poverty (PASDEP). 2005/06-2009/10. Addis Ababa: MoFED, 2006.

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Crop Prospects and Food Situation. 5(Dec). Rome: FAO, 2008.

Taddese G. Land Degradation: A Challenge for Ethiopia. Environmental Management 2001; 27: 815-824.

MNRDEP. Ethiopian Forestry Action Program (EFAP). Addis Ababa: Ministry of Natural Resources Development and Environmental Protection, 1994.

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010. Rome: FAO, 2010.

United Nations Population Division (UNPD). World Population Prospects: The 2011 Revision. UNPD, New York, 2010.

Leahy E, Engelman R, Vogel CG, Haddock S and Preston T. The Shape of Things to Come: Why Age Structure Matters to a Safer, More Equitable World. Washington, DC: Population Action International, Washington, DC, 2007.

United Nations Population Division (UNPD). World Urbanization Prospects: The 2011 Revision. New York: UNDP, 2012.

Measure DHS. Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey 2011. Calverton MD: Macro International Inc., 2012.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Magistro J and Roncoli C. Anthropological Perspectives and Policy Implications of Climate Change Research. Climate Research 2001; 19: 91-96.

Malone EL. Vulnerability and Resilience in the Face of Climate Change: Current Research and Needs for Population Information. Richland, WA: Batelle, 2009.

Moss RH, Brenkert AL and Malone EL. Vulnerability to Climate Change: A Quantitative Approach. Washington, DC: Pacific Northwest Laboratory, 2001.

Brenkert AL and Malone EL. Modeling Vulnerability and Resilience to Climate Change: A Case Study of India and Indian States. Climatic Change 2005; 72: 57-102.

Malone EL and Brenkert A. Vulnerability, Sensitivity, and Coping/Adaptive Capacity Worldwide. In: Ruth M and Ibarraran M. The Distributional Effects of Climate Change: Social and Economic Implications. Dordrecht: Elsevier Science, 2009.

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Human Development Reports: Ethiopia. New York: UNDP, 2007.

Little PD, Mahmoud H and Coppock DL. When Deserts Flood: Risk Management and Climatic Processes among East African Pastoralists. Climate Research 2001; 19: 149-159.

Brondizio, ES and Moran, EF. Human Dimensions of Climate Change: The Vulnerability of Small Farmers in the Amazon. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 2008; 363: 1803-1809.

Roncoli C, Ingram K and Kirshen P. The Cost and Risks of Coping with Drought: Livelihood Impacts and Farmers’ Responses in Burkina Faso. Climate Research 2001; 19: 119-132.

Vedwan N and Rhoades RE. Climate Change in the Western Himalayas of India: A Study of Local Perception and Response. Climate Research 2001; 19: 109-117.

Nyong A, Adesina F and Elasha BO. The Value of Indigenous Knowledge in Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies in the African Sahel. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 2007; 12: 787-797.

Goerner A, Jolie E and Gloaguen R. Non-Climatic Growth of the Saline Lake Beseka, Main Ethiopia Rift. Journal of Arid Environments 2009; 73(3): 287-295.

O’Neill B, MacKellar FL and Lutz W. Population, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Climate Change. In: Lutz W, Sanderson, WC and Scherbov S (Eds.). The End of Population Growth in the 21st Century: New Challenges for Human Capital Formation and Sustainable Development. London: IIASA and Earthscan, 2004.

Jiang L and Hardee K. Does Population Matter to Climate Change? PAI Working Paper WP09-1. Washington, DC: PAI 2009.

Hardee K and Mutunga C. Strengthening the Link Between Climate Change Adaptation and National Development Plans: Lessons from the Case of Population in National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs). Washington, DC: PAI, 2009.

Murtaugh, PA and Schlax, MG. Reproduction and the Carbon Legacies of Individuals. Global Environmental Change 2009; 19: 14-20.

UNFPA and IIED. Population Dynamics and Climate Change. New York: UNFPA, 2009.

Ringheim K, Teller C and Sines E. Ethiopia at a Crossroads: Demography, Gender and Development. Washington, DC: Population Reference Bureau, 2009.

Environmental Protection Authority (EPA) and the Ministry of Economic Development and Cooperation. Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia: Environmental Policy. Addis Ababa: EPA, 1997.

Transitional Government of Ethiopia. National Policy on Disaster Prevention and Management. Addis Ababa: Transitional Government of Ethiopia, 1993.

Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (FDRE) Ministry of Water Resources and National Meteorological Agency (NMA). Climate Change National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) of Ethiopia. Addis Ababa: UNDP, 2007.

Office of the Prime Minister. National Population Policy of Ethiopia. Addis Ababa: Transitional Government of Ethiopia, 1993.

Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (FDRE) Ministry of Health. National Reproductive Health Strategy 2006-2015. Addis Ababa: Ministry of Health, 2006.

Ministry of Finance and Economic Development (MoFED). Ethiopia: Building on Progress. A Plan for Accelerated and Sustained Development to End Poverty (PASDEP). 2005/06-2009/10. Addis Ababa: MoFED, 2006.

Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (FDRE) Ministry of Finance and Economic Development (MoFED). Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP) 2010/11-2014/15. Addis Ababa: MoFED, 2010.

Campbell M, Cleland J, Ezeh A and Prata N. Return of the Population Growth Factor. Science 2007; 315: 1501-1502.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.