Reproductive health challenges among women in internally displaced camps in Benue State: A protocol for a community-based health education interventional study

Atenchong Ngwibete, Olayinka Ogunbode, Timothy Oluwashola, Akinyinka Omigbodun


Sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services are a necessity for marginalized persons such as the displaced. The protocol describes an intervention that can contribute to overcoming challenges associated with SRH service delivery of three selected reproductive health (RH) services: HIV/AIDS, contraception, and cervical cancer screening. A pre-and post-intervention approach will be used to evaluate the effect of an intervention with trained Community-Based Reproductive Health Personnel (CBRHP) and/or mHealth technology within the selected IDP camps. Three (3) months of health education through the CBRHP and/or via mHealth technology will be provided. Using a questionnaire, interviews, and Focus Group Discussion (FGD) guide, the researcher will assess the suitability of this intervention to attain the objectives. Data analysis will be done with SPSS version 26. Univariate analysis will include mean and standard deviation, bivariate analysis will include a chi-square test of goodness for the association of variables, and McNemer’s test to evaluate the effect of the intervention by comparing consistency in response across the variables under study. Multivariate analysis will be used to assess if sociodemographic, knowledge and health service impacts access and use of RH services. For qualitative analysis, findings will be grouped into themes. The outcomes of each theme will be used to complement the findings of the quantitative analysis. The primary outcome measures will include the level of knowledge of SRH, the number of people who want to access RH services and which RH services are most sought by the respondents. If the use of CBRHP is successful, there will be an increase in knowledge and use of HIV/AIDS, contraception and cervical cancer services. Challenges associated with access and uptake of RH services will also be assessed. (Afr J Reprod Health 2023; 27 [10]: 133-144).

Full Text:



Amiri M, El-Mowafi IM, Chahien T, Yousef H and Kobeissi

LH. An overview of the sexual and reproductive health

status and service delivery among Syrian refugees in

Jordan, nine years since the crisis: a systematic literature

review. Reprod Health. 2020;17(1):1-20.


United Nations Human Rights. OHCHR | Questions and

answers about IDPs. United Nations Hum Rights; Off

High Comm. Published online 2017.


UNHCR. UNHCR - Internally Displaced People. Unhcr.

Published online 2017.

Isah B. Reproductive health challenges among internally

displaced persons in abuja.pdf. Published online 2015.

WHO. Improving Sexual and Reproductive Health services

among refugees and internally displaced people. Heal

Clust World Heal Organ. Published online 2021.

Odo ANA, Musa K and Oladugba AVA. Sexual and

reproductive health needs and problems of internally

displaced adolescents (IDAs) in Borno State, Nigeria: A

mixed method approach. Afr J Reprod Health.

;24(1):87-96. doi:10.29063/ajrh2020/v24i1.9

Farih MI, Farih M, Khan K, Freeth D and Meads C. An

exploratory study of sexual and reproductive health

knowledge, information-seeking behaviour and attitudes

among Saudi women: A questionnaire survey of

university students Statement of originality for inclusion

in research degree theses. Reprod Heal J Int J Sex Heal.



Okon EO. Internally Displaced Persons in Nigeria: Review of

Empirical Studies. Am Int J Soc Sci Res. 2018;2(1):28-38.


UNFPA. UNFPA Nigeria | In crisis, access to reproductive

health care often determines if women and girls live or

die, says UNFPA Executive Director. Published online


Ekezie W, Timmons S, Myles P, Siebert P, Bains M and

Pritchard C. An audit of healthcare provision in internally

displaced population camps in Nigeria. J Public Health

(Oxf). 2019;41(3):583-592. doi:10.1093/pubmed/fdy141

Amodu OC, Richter MS and Salami BO. A scoping review

of the health of conflict-induced internally displaced

women in Africa. Int J Environ Res Public Health.

;17(4). doi:10.3390/ijerph17041280

Fathalla M. Issues in reproductive health: Health and being

a woman. Published 2015. Accessed September 29, 2021.

Care International. 5 Reasons Why Women and Girls Are

Particularly Vulnerable to COVID-19 | Care International.

Published online 2020.

Olorundare Y. Sexual and reproductive health and right of

women and girls in Nigeria. HACEY. Published 2020.

Accessed September 29, 2021.

Cortez R, Quinlan-Davidson M and Saadaat S. Challenges

For Adolescent’s Sexual And Reproductive Health

Within The Context Of Universal Health Coverage

Health, Nutrition and Population Global Knowledge

Brief. Published online 2014:1-4.

Abdullahi S, Smelyanskaya M, and SJPl, U. Providing TB

and HIV outreach services to internally displaced

populations in Northeast Nigeria: Results of a controlled

intervention study. JournalsPlosOrg. Published online


Weiser SD, Leiter K and Bangsberg DR. Food insufficiency

is associated with high-risk sexual behavior among

women in Botswana and Swaziland. PLoS Med.



Amodu OC, Salami BO, Richter S and Okeke-Ihejirika P.

Reproductive healthcare for women in IDP camps in

Nigeria: An analysis of structural gaps. Glob Public

Health. 2021;16(4):563-577.


WHO, PAHO. 160th Session of the executive committee

strategy on human resources for universal. Strateg Hum

Resour Univers access to Heal Univers Heal Cover.



Médecins Sans Frontières. Working with displaced people

in Benue state, Nigeria. Published online 2019.

IDMC, NRC. 10 million people internally displaced across

sub-Saharan Africa in 2018. Intern Displac Monit Cent.


National Agency For The Control Of AIDS NACA. nigeria

prevalence rate- NACA Nigeria. Fed Minist Heal.

Published online 2012.

Medlineplus. Maximizing your teaching moment:

MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Published 2019.

Accessed December 3, 2021.

Ivankova NV, Creswell JW and Stick SL. Using MixedMethods Sequential Explanatory Design: From Theory to

Practice. Field methods. 2006;18(1):3-20.


Bolarinwa O. Principles and methods of validity and

reliability testing of questionnaires used in social and

health science researches. Niger Postgrad Med J.

;22(4):195. doi:10.4103/1117-1936.173959

DHS. Demographic and health surveys model woman’s

questionnaire. 2020;(1):1-71.

Ahmed S, Ahmed R, Idris S and Sabitu K. Knowledge,

attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening among

market women in Zaria, Nigeria. Niger Med J.

;54(5):316. doi:10.4103/0300-1652.122337

Chaka B, Sayed AR, Goeieman B and Rayne S. A survey of

knowledge and attitudes relating to cervical and breast

cancer among women in Ethiopia BMC Public Health

Full Text. Published online 2018.

Howard N, Woodward A, Souare Y, Kollie S, Blankhart D,

von Roenne A and Borchert M. Reproductive health for

refugees by refugees in Guinea III: maternal health. Confl

Health. 2011 Apr 12;5:5. doi: 10.1186/1752-1505-5-5.

PMID: 21486433; PMCID: PMC3080804.

Woodward A, Howard N, Souare Y, Kollie S, Von Roenne

A and Borchert M. Reproductive health for refugees by

refugees in Guinea IV: Peer education and HIV

knowledge, attitudes, and reported practices. Confl

Health. 2011;5(1):1-10. doi:10.1186/1752-1505-5-10

Ohihoin A, Ebiere C, Tajudeen B, Adesola Z, Ebelechukwu

E, Agatha N, Adeniyi A, Ifeoma I, Esther Ngozi O, David

O, Oliver E and Innocent U. “Challenges to Accessing

Ante-Natal and Postnatal Care in Internally Displaced

Persons (IDPs) Camps in Nigeria.” Ann Med Health Sci

Res. 2021;11:1367-1370 .

Pierce H. Reproductive health care utilization among

refugees in Jordan: Provisional support and domestic

violence. Women’s Heal. 2019;15.


Muuo S, Muthuri SK, Mutua MK, McAlpine A, Bacchus LJ,

Ogego H, Bangha M, Hossain M and Izugbara C. Barriers

and facilitators to care-seeking among survivors of

gender-based violence in the Dadaab refugee complex.

Sex Reprod Health Matters. 2020 Dec;28(1):1722404.

doi: 10.1080/26410397.2020.1722404. PMID: 32075551;

PMCID: PMC7887977.

Kwankye SO, Richter S, Okeke-Ihejirika P, Gomma H,

Obegu P and Salami B. A review of the literature on

sexual and reproductive health of African migrant and

refugee children. Reprod Heal 2021 181. 2021;18(1):1-


Ivanova O, Rai M, Mlahagwa W, Tumuhairwe J, Bakuli A,

Viola N and Kemigisha E. A cross-sectional mixedmethods study of sexual and reproductive health

knowledge, experiences and access to services among

refugee adolescent girls in the Nakivale refugee

settlement, Uganda. Reprod Health. 2019;16(1):1-11.



  • There are currently no refbacks.