Causes and Risk Factors for Male-Factor Infertility in Nigeria: A Review

Sunny O. Abarikwu


In recent times there has been a decline in the semen quality of young healthy men worldwide, with similar findings being reported in Nigeria. Although little is known about what is responsible for the decline in male sperm count worldwide, significant associations have been reported between impaired semen quality including sperm count, motility as well as morphology and exposures to heavy metals such as cadmium and lead, mycotoxins such as aflatoxins, pesticides, industrial chemicals and endocrine factors. In Nigeria, the problem is further compounded by a variety of factors such as sexually transmitted infections, genito-urinary tract infections/inflammations and deficiencies of dietary antioxidant nutrients, thereby increasing male-factor contribution to infertility in the population. In this article, we analyze data from different sources and present evidence of the possible etiology and risk factors for male-factor infertility in Nigeria. (Afr J Reprod Health 2013; 17[4]: 150-166).

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